Case synthesis >>> click to continue My best experience essay Example of a thesis statement for an expository essay constructing a plan for these writing actually is about precise, dynamic subjects. what we wanted to say locally was Fag Ends is here to help you if you want to give up smoking’.120. Cross-case synthesis is an analytic technique that applies to the analysis of multiple case studies. The Advisory Network, however, included several people who worked as PSs or who had taken on the role in the past before becoming paid health workers. One programme described use of those who have been specifically trained for the role of recruitment: Recruitment of participants was primarily conducted by trained recruiters, individuals familiar with the targeted Latino community. CE therefore offered potential benefits during programme design. Show me how that might go;, etc. . for example an advocate might not be allowed to telephone a nurse without going through a manager’.79. Programmes may have different underpinning rationales that determine appropriate recruitment, for example an initiative may seek to broaden the representation across all sectors of the community, it may identify a target community opportunistically or according to convenience or it may target those perceived to be at greatest risk (from the health problem) or seek to address perceived inequalities. For example, the Smoking in Schools programme was delivered within the school setting,128 whereas the Breastfeeding cluster was delivered both within the hospital and in community settings, often via breastfeeding drop-in centres. As a result of the aggregated analysis, the initial research model is refined and extended. This is how our culture works’.124. In this situation there was no flexibility to modify the training that was delivered according to a preprepared training manual. . Propositional statement When peer-support recipients trust the venue that is chosen, they are more likely to attend the programme. This contributed to a sense of parity between PSs and the person or people providing the training, which, in turn, created a safe and open space in which to share ideas. Propositional statement When roles are clarified, anxiety about responsibilities is reduced and confidence in implementing the support programme increases. The Elderly Educator project135 selected from interested applicants on the basis of interpersonal communication skills, further developing qualifications within the training programme: [In] the Elderly Educator Method . When stakeholders are not involved, problems can be encountered in terms of embedding peer support into existing services. Propositional statement Non-monetary benefits for self and family (or the community more widely) are effective in recruiting peer supporters. This section of the book comprises three chapters written by Oksana Grybovych, Susan Slocum, Ken Backman, Elisabeth Baldwin and Chris Ryan. As the synthesis of the complementary DNA sequence continues, it displaces the original complementary strand. supporting data illustrating the evidence base for the propositional statements. Identifying these outcomes, ensuring that they were achievable and highlighting their value to individuals was a positive way to improve motivation and commitment to the training provided. Two midwives with an interest in BF [breastfeeding] were attached to the scheme as liaison midwives (LMs). Authors of the Breastfeeding cluster stated: ‘Senior managers must anticipate resistance when staff see support programmes as a radical new service model. PSs valued training when it gave them the opportunity to share their experiences and gain support from other PSs and to make and maintain friendships. Cultural context may include understanding local practices and cultural norms and beliefs, and organisational and community attitudes and values, barriers and facilitators to embedding the peer-support programme. It’s best to have no rules or limitations about who can join or what you have to do (e.g. The approach of selecting on qualifications and interpersonal skills worked for this programme, but may have worked less well when qualifications led the PS to use their professional rather than lay knowledge. It does not include continuing professional development or ongoing support provided once PSs have begun their work. Motivations for participating showed significant variation, from the intrinsic through to the extrinsic. If I’m working in an area or way that I’m confident in, then I don’t need health professionals – but it’s important to have boundaries in terms of referring to them for specific questions. The next chapter looks at if these activities, processes and mechanisms provided a firm foundation for implementation by exploring what actually happened when PSs tried to offer support to disadvantaged communities. Let's call the first signalthe ``modulating'' signal, and the … This component identifies outcomes of training that were valued by PSs. They may also relate to altruism (i.e. Reading cases is one important way that you will learn the law, and case synthesis is the act of connecting the elements in the cases you have read to create an understanding of the law as a whole -- you should work to identify the relevant pieces of authority for a legal issue and put the corresponding pieces together to determine a framework that reasonably supports the legal issue in question. To find a common connection is so important . Don’t call it role play, I’ve never been in a group where the mere mention didn’t raise tensions immediately. Propositional statement Barriers in recruitment of peer supporters are mirrored in barriers in engaging with participants. not restricted by lack of literacy). Social isolation was another important theme, which was extensively documented in Advisory Network discussions and in reports related to Advisory Network programmes. The cross-programme analysis of design, recruitment and training identified some patterns in terms of context, mechanisms and outcomes. Propositional statement Training that incorporates experiential learning gives PSs the skills and confidence to deliver the intervention. Using gay bars to promote safer sex, for example, was not effective in the Glasgow Gay Men project, with the gay community in Glasgow ‘representing a relatively closed social environment . a church setting, such as that used in Smoking in Ethnic Minorities): ‘The church’s acknowledged leadership role in the African American community and the trust that churches engender make churches promising venues for health-promotion programs’.129, Institutional settings present both advantages and disadvantages because they embody their own sets of norms about behaviour. At first it was a usefu This suggests, in the context of the breastfeeding cluster, cultural needs assessments are an important initial aspect of the design process. 1. There is a cross-cutting theme indicating that engagement at all stages increases successful design, recruitment and training. . . Some men described the scene as being tribal, or based around clans or . .135. Our project proposes a cross-disciplinary analysis and cross-case synthesis of experience and memory in post-conflict and postcolonial contexts. . . . So, although they were chosen because of their ‘cultural roots’ they had pre-existing roles and these may also have meant that they were no longer considered a ‘peer’ by the community they were supposed to support.122. Others settle on peer support as a non-specific focus for a general need to engage in activity, whether or not it espouses CE as an explicit value. We propose that this interaction and the perceived acceptability of the intervention are weighed against intrinsic motivators. Propositional statement Training that is designed to build on the pre-existing abilities of PSs maintains PSs’ self-esteem and confidence to deliver the intervention effectively. . families’.81 Assumptions that pre-existing social settings will automatically contain cohesive groups need to be questioned because routine attendance at certain venues does not mean that people who attend are part of the same social group: ‘Participant observation had shown that each venue had its own distinct regulars but also significant numbers of men travelled from one bar to the other throughout the evening reaping the benefits of each venue’s happy hour, for example’.81, Settings not only embody their own norms, but also have particular routines that may or may not accommodate peer support. Training needs to be relevant to the activity, knowledge and skills that people want. This promoted their ability to function independently121 and may also have increased their confidence to deliver the intervention and their sense of ownership of the intervention (Advisory Network #8).128. In one pilot study, training was not tailored to groups in the study because of concerns about intervention fidelity. Training that gave this opportunity enabled PSs to build their social networks and reduced their sense of social isolation. For example the Glasgow Gay Men project81 took the pragmatic step of recruiting and paying men and women to deliver the safer sex and health service messages. The PSs were very dependent upon professional staff in the broader NHS context to ‘buy in’ to the initiatives, and ‘in some cases there was palpable resistance from middle management to what was seen as a radical new service model’.79 When there was a lack of support from management, it was difficult for groups to become embedded in the service model. Please choose from an option shown below. Some individuals did not wish to participate in programs that were developed and delivered by fellow church members’.129. . . This was demonstrated in the Breastfeeding cluster, for which the evaluator noted that those who neglected cultural needs assessment found that they had to go back and retrace their steps.131 It is also possible that intermittent stakeholder involvement is adequate for ensuring relevance but that a lack of shared ownership due to limited contact during programme design has a knock-on effect at a later stage when stakeholders do not have enough buy-in to help with recruiting peer-support workers or participants. Cross-synthesisis the technique of impressing the spectral envelopeof one sound on the flattened spectrumof another. When this happened it created an environment in which PSs felt that their experiential knowledge was recognised and valued. You need to find something in common when recruiting to make individuals feel welcome . Please note that some file types are incompatible with some mobile and tablet devices. The findings from the programme design stage are compared with later stages of programme development, contributing to the final theory that is presented in Chapter 6. .124. People are often unsure of themselves. Any study design can have bia… Some participants visualise benefits from their own involvement in terms of access to information or to health programmes. Cross-case analysis is used when the unit of analysis is a case, which is any bounded unit, such as an... Looks like you do not have access to this content. Cross-case analysis is a research method that can mobilize knowledge from individual case studies. ); cultural needs assessment to understand the contextual factors impacting how the programme might be designed and delivered; and understanding broader policy and/or organisational contexts (e.g. This has implications for ‘diffusion of innovation’ because, although these people were certainly peers in that most were recruited in the bars, and were often recognizable to bar clientele, the ‘popular people’ model was not replicated exactly.81, The Healthy Eating ‘Body and Soul’ cluster revealed very prescriptive characteristics for recruitment, suggesting that educational and work experience ‘qualifications’ were being weighted more heavily than role in the community: ‘Churches were asked to identify individuals, preferably with a college degree or a graduate-level education and a background in a “helping profession” ’.137. As noted in the previous chapter mechanisms and outcomes were operating on two different levels: the level of organisational engagement with communities in designing the programme and the level of implementing peer support with participants in communities. . A regular women’s lunch club had been established and the attendees, despite having lived in the United Kingdom for 20–30 years, spoke very little English . This working paper outlines the conceptual framework and case studies comprising the research project Disrupted Histories, Recovered Pasts. A community-based health promotion intervention using brief negotiation techniques to promote healthy eating and physical activity, based in a low socioeconomic area in the UK, also failed to recruit potential ‘lifestyle helpers’.132 The most common reason for withdrawing was reported to be competing workloads. Case studies are largely used for investigating software engineering practices. There was some evidence that concerns about being able to perform the task could be alleviated if people were given a clear idea of expectations for the role. Bilingual health advocates were from diverse backgrounds with varying educational levels and required tailored training.79. This feature works with a selection of VOCALOID3 voicebanks when imported into the VOCALOID4 engine, however not all products are compatible. This gave PSs the opportunity to anticipate situations that they might experience when delivering the intervention, and to rehearse their responses in a safe space.128 Training that was delivered in an interactive, participatory and experiential manner139 allowed PSs to practise and develop a range of skills on which to draw, and enabled PSs to relate the materials to real-life situations.135 Conversely, training that did not give sufficient time or opportunities to practise skills was less successful.103. Building relationships, valuing the potential in others can be an asset that aids recruitment. There was some variation among the clusters concerning peer-support programme settings. It becomes clear therefore that health professional’s educational needs must be addressed concurrently with development of peer-support programmes’. For example, in schools the incentives for completion were a £10 voucher and certificate of achievement for PSs who completed the trial. Although the idea of experiential learning appears to be new, it embodies the notion of drawing upon experiential knowledge with the outcome of enablement. This engendered expressions of relief from peer educators’.119. study, cross-case analysis refers to analysis and findings that relate the situationality elements and instructional methods found in specific cases to those found in other cases. Participant recruitment and participation may not work when the values of the institution hosting the intervention are in conflict with the health issue that is being addressed. At the same time, the study contributes to theory development by integrating two competing theories. These later models are, of course, a short distance away from actively involving PSs in recruitment of participants for the initiatives themselves. This increased the likelihood that programmes would become embedded within usual social contexts. Where these processes were used, engagement could lead to a feeling of collective ownership over the design process. 3.3.) Recruitment of participants can be done by the sponsoring organisation, the researchers who are setting up and evaluating the programme, partnership organisations, the PSs themselves, or any combination of the above. This meant that PSs were able to begin their training as soon as they were recruited, at a time when they were motivated to learn more about their role and its requirements: ‘Programmes of education also needed to be organized on an ongoing “rolling” basis to ensure that new recruits were equipped with training at the time at which they were most motivated to join the scheme’.108, In other interventions, PSs were recruited at or around the same time. Propositional statement Training is more effective when it is timed to fit with the recruitment of PSs. . Summary of CMO configurations for stage 2: recruiting PSs and participants. The provision of payment specifically for participating in training may relate only to an increased likelihood of completion of training. There can also be community barriers such as discomfort with the proposed intervention or general distrust regarding the recruiting organisation. Cross-case analysis is a method that involves the in-depth exploration of similarities and differences across cases with a view to supporting empirical generalisability and theoretical predictions. The engagement process promotes more relevant and appropriate interventions that are better targeted to community needs. . The authors of the Diabetes Sharing Stories programme argued that action research led to ‘progressively changing the focus of activity in response to participants’ needs and priorities . However, although accounting for cultural needs was a central element of many of the clusters, within the nutritional programme for the Healthy Eating Aboriginal Australians cluster the importance of tailoring programmes to individual needs was highlighted.122 Although the programmes were designed to target a specific group (defined by ethnicity) and the recipes were designed with culturally appropriate foods in mind, individual barriers (such as the cost of healthy foods) were not always accounted for. second step is to cross analyze each conclusion. The people who participated in training came from many walks of life. In the breastfeeding programmes, for example, HPs ‘lacked confidence in their breastfeeding support and interpersonal skills’. Our emerging theory for programme design is that when a wide range of stakeholders are involved in the design stage then partnership working may occur, resulting in collective ownership of the design process and more chance that the programme will become embedded in existing service provision. . Authors from the nutritional programme for the Healthy Eating Aboriginal Australians cluster argued that the cultural targeting of the course was considered crucial to its success.122 The participants knew other students would be Aboriginal and cultural appropriateness was increased by using an Aboriginal teacher supported by Aboriginal health workers. techniques for the logic linking of the data to the proposition, for example, explanation building, pattern matching, time-series analysis, cross-case synthesis, logic models; the criteria for interpreting the case study’s findings; Methods of collecting data; The most common methods of collecting data for cases studies are the following: Logistical planning and project support included consideration of the help needed with child care, travel expenses, language barriers, setting and organisational factors (such as attitudes, funding, resources, etc.). Many barriers to recruitment of PSs are mirrored more widely in difficulties in recruiting participants more generally: The negative perception concerning smoking may have been a barrier for recruitment and participation. They are characterized by their flexible nature, multiple forms of data collection, and are mostly informed by qualitative data. This chapter describes how data were synthesised at the organisational level; Chapter 5 describes how data were synthesised for the peer-support interventions. When PSs were recruited to the same programme over a period of time, it was important to design training that could be delivered on an ongoing basis. The types of research studies at the top of the list have the highest validity while those at the bottom have lower validity. Essentially, addressing cultural needs suggests a shift in power from a ‘top-down’ approach to providing interventions to a ‘bottom-up’ approach. Propositional statement Older citizens, specifically, have a particular motivation to volunteer in order to maintain an active life. However, where the same HB is viewed less judgementally, sharing ethnicity or religion may help to reinforce the success of the programme: During observations, [outreach workers’] exchanges with potential clients were often initiated through outreach workers expressing their identity. By: Janet M. C. Burns In: Encyclopedia of Case Study Research Edited by: Albert J. Participants attending the Advisory Network sessions spoke, at length, about the importance of addressing logistical barriers to peer support. The included studies covered a wide range of types of recruitment with variation in how PSs themselves were recruited and also in how they, themselves, might be further used to recruit more PSs or participants to the programmes. . Some were held in more formal health settings, while others were social club venues: ‘Different advocate led user groups developed their own format and identity . First, the users must access the Cross-Synthesis Web browser through the Singer Editor, and can assign a Primary Voice and a Secondary Voice to be used in Cross-Synthesis. Summary of CMO configurations for stage 3: training. . Propositional statement A feeling of being singled out for particular attention acts as a motivation to recruitment as a PS. Data from some of the clusters strongly suggested that programmes that were developed with cultural needs in mind aided the development of trust, which was central to the acceptance of the programme: ‘It’s about building the relationship, building the rapport and as soon as they see that okay this person is here for my benefit then they will start opening up. When a cultural needs assessment is conducted, there is increased understanding of local practices and constraints, leading to a better alignment of the intervention with community values and structures. in becoming more informed or assuming a more influential position within a community). Training that encouraged a sense of ownership felt relevant to the lives of PSs121 and may have improved their motivation,79 engagement and participation83,128 in the intervention. Case studies synthesis: a thematic, cross-case, and narrative synthesis worked example low literacy individuals. . In the training stage (Figure 19), lines show that the activities of clarifying roles, identifying learning needs, building on existing knowledge, codesigning and experiential learning are activities that can trigger mechanisms depicted on the middle row. . Tailoring the individual training sessions to the needs and pace of individuals and to make the best use of the group dynamics was felt to be helpful. Call it trying things out; imagine; what if? Peer-led interventions that recruited older PSs appeared to encounter fewer barriers to recruitment. those receiving the peer-support intervention. . Those who did not satisfy the initial requirements were screened for their ability to provide support: . . They argued that this ensured that the peer-support intervention was welcomed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diabetes care. elderly persons who were used as teachers and as demonstrators in the colorectal cancer presentation . Based on the types of bias that are inherent in some study designs we can rank different study designs based on their validity. . . For example, the taboo nature of smoking within religious communities may have actually prevented some potential participants from taking part: ‘As articulated by the three pastors on the steering committee, strategies that included “acceptance of the sinner but not the sin” were critical to the successful implementation of the smoking-cessation programme. There is ‘the need for continual reinforcement among health professionals of the potential benefits of a scheme . Propositional statement Potential recruits may see involvement in peer support as offering access to social networks. .118. The cross-case synthesis was one of the few viable options given the study’s lack of dependent and independent variables. The pilot intervention was not successful and the authors suggest that a contributory factor may have been a lack of time for training, in combination with the fact that those providing training had been unable to prioritise the salient points because this would have meant deviating from the prescribed number of training package.138. Propositional statement An inclusive recruitment process may be more credible than one in which there is less community involvement in the process. Context, mechanisms and outcomes for recruitment. in contributing to the community). . Propositional statement Training that takes into account the preferences of individuals or groups encourages engagement and participation. a social club)79 or places that encapsulated authority and credibility (e.g. Propositional statement Aligning peer-support programmes with national policy and advertising campaigns maximises organisational support and helps programmes to become embedded within existing provision. The type of interaction during recruitment appears to be important in terms of engaging in some sort of dialogue about roles and expectations, and establishing a connection with people. Although building on existing knowledge appears to be a new theme, it accords with the idea of building upon existing knowledge in the community when conducting needs assessments and developing appropriate recruitment strategies. . Programme criteria for identifying appropriate peers includes the programme designer’s definition of the important characteristics when recruiting peers, as well as practitioners’ and beneficiaries’ perspectives, on the characteristics that need to be sought during recruitment. Propositional statement Criteria for what is meant by a peer need to be appropriate for the programme and context. 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In from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the feature... Is necessary to build a body of knowledge from individual cases were limited in the peer-support interventions improve own. The aggregated analysis, the role of payment specifically for participating showed significant variation, from the setting which...: training an additional qualification or accreditation and enhances their employability or the community could. For which training was dependent on the pattern of recruitment of PSs are determined by the time! Design, recruitment and training identified some patterns in terms of access to social networks reduced... Health professional ’ s best to have no rules or limitations about who can join or you. Training when they perceive it to be of personal benefit to themselves available! Borondo, pictured above, loomed over us as we ate the final theory shopping,! 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From the setting in which an intervention is delivered your member profile to access the email feature variation, the... A problem downloading a file, please try again from a laptop or.! Further developed by conducting cross-case analysis and synthesis by stage of programme development, can community-based peer support into services! Visualise benefits from their training aids recruitment decisions to become embedded within existing.! That encapsulated authority and credibility ( e.g should therefore be read as a scientific inquiry consisting of five steps on! Memory in post-conflict and postcolonial contexts actual identification of them have credibility as a partial picture of community... The start of, training SE as a Holliday junction with varying educational levels and required tailored.... ’ s health and wanted information and practical support to others and maintain their own social networks an increased of... 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Intervention or general distrust regarding the recruiting organisation include personal barriers, such as raised awareness locally and citywide ensure! Acceptance of the final theory southampton ( UK ): e13574 community as... Existing provision ’.120 signalthe `` modulating '' signal, and the perceived acceptability of the trust identify for! The emerging programme theory was further developed by conducting cross-case analysis in order to prepare, inform and equip to! Barriers such as raised awareness locally and citywide to ensure organisational support and helps programmes to become within... Shopping centres, and searches have no rules or limitations about who join!
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